All Questions

How can I overcome my fear of driving on highways and bridges or when I don’t know the exact route? Why am I afraid of driving in high places and on roads with vast open areas, even though I’m a rock climber?

Response from Patrick B. McGrath, PhD:

Patrick McGrath, PhD

A fear of driving may come about for many reasons.

Fear Factors

Some people who have been in an accident fear that they will be in another one. Even if they have driven for 20 years without incident, it’s easy to wipe out the safe memories of driving and replace them all with one bad experience. When this happens, even thinking about getting in a car cues the accident memories, and it may lead to thoughts of driving becoming almost as frightening as driving itself.

Others fear that they will have a panic attack or other panic symptoms while driving. With that often comes the erroneous belief that a panic attack is dangerous and that it will cause you to either lose control, go “crazy,” or pass out. If this were to happen, the consequences could be severe, so the typical thought is that it is best not to drive so that this will not happen.

People may also fear harming others, and they will avoid driving so that they will not be the cause of someone being hurt. And some people may have a significant fear of getting lost, so they stop driving because they don’t want to get themselves or their passengers lost. Even if it is just in their neighborhood, over a route they’ve traveled hundreds of times while someone else was driving, they may fear that they might forget where to go.

When it comes to a specific phobia, like open spaces or heights, it doesn’t matter what you do not fear. You may be a mountain climber who fears driving in vast areas. You may be a pilot who fears driving over bridges. Reasons for having phobias often don’t make logical sense, even though they appear to make a great deal of emotional sense to the person experiencing the fear.

Getting Treatment

Good treatment is available for phobias, and it’s called exposure and response prevention (ERP) therapy. In ERP, a fear hierarchy is created – a list that ranks feared situations from least to most feared.

A therapist works with the patient on slowly doing the tasks (exposures) on the list, while also encouraging the patient to not engage in coping strategies (avoidance or seeking reassurance). Some of the tasks were easier than others.

A hierarchy that I have used with a patient who had been in a car accident looked like this:

  • Stand five feet from the car and stare at it.
  • Walk over to the car.
  • Touch the car.
  • Touch the door handle.
  • Open the door.
  • Sit in the car.
  • Put the key in the ignition.
  • Start the car.
  • Put the car in drive.
  • Start to drive around the parking lot at 5 mph.
  • Pull out onto a side street and drive.
  • Drive on a main street.
  • Drive on the highway for one exit.
  • Drive on the highway for two exits.
  • Drive on the highway for unspecified times.

Accomplishing Your Goal

Ultimately, it was important to accomplish the following:

  1. Do the task.
  2. Stay in the task until your anxiety has gone down on its own to at least half of what it was when the exposure started.
  3. Repeat the task until it becomes a routine.

You may learn your fear after just one experience, but it will usually take numerous experiences to replace your fear with adaptive coping behaviors.

Patrick B. McGrath, PhD, is Director, Center for Anxiety and Obsessive Compulsive Disorders, Alexian Brothers Behavioral Health Hospital, Hoffman Estates, Illinois, and author of The OCD Answer Book (Sourcebooks, Inc.; December 1, 2007).


When asked out on a date, or talking to someone you’re interested in, when is the right time to explain your GAD or other disorder? What tips do you have to explain it in ways someone will understand and respect?

Response from Debra Kissen, PhD:

Debra Kissen, PhDWhen it comes to divulging personal information when you’re dating, there’s no need to rush. Like all other processes, dating takes time. So take your time in sharing any details, whether they're about your medical or mental health history, finances, or political views.


There is no perfect timing for sharing information about your mental health. But if you have a history of your GAD or other disorder affecting relationships, or you can predict ways that it might get in the way of your new relationship, it might be helpful to explain. You might say something like this: “I have a tendency to get caught up in my worries. It’s something I’m actively trying to work on, but there are some moments when I may lose perspective and worry more than the average person.”


Communication is an ongoing process, so you’ll most likely have several small conversations instead of one big all-encompassing conversation about your GAD, other anxiety disorders, depression, or any mental health concern. The most important thing is to just to try to be yourself and have fun!

Debra Kissen, PhD, a licensed clinical psychologist, is the Clinical Director of the Light on Anxiety Treatment Center in Chicago. She has a special interest in mindfulness-based treatment for anxiety disorders.

In her practice, she provides cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to children, adolescents and adults with a focus on anxiety and stress-related disorders, including OCD, PTSD, panic disorder, agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobias, separation anxiety disorder, compulsive skin picking, and trichotillomania. 

I am too shy to even to make small talk with my coworkers. Will I always be this way?

Response from Jennifer Shannon, LMFT:

Jennifer ShannonFirst of all, you are not alone! It may seem like everyone else is comfortable in social situations, but this is not true. In one study of 1,000 people, 40 percent said they were shy to the point of it being a problem.

Social anxiety disorder is the fourth most common mental health disorder after depression, alcohol abuse, and specific phobias.

The Difference Between Shyness and Social Anxiety Disorder

The hallmark of shyness is the fear of being scrutinized or negatively judged by others in social situations. Shy people are afraid of saying or doing something that will embarrass or humiliate them. Anticipating these feared situations provokes anxiety in the shy person, and how you handle this anxiety is how we determine if you are simply shy or if you have social anxiety disorder.

If you are avoiding social situations to the point where it is interfering significantly with your work, school, social activities, or relationships you are likely suffering from social anxiety disorder.

Causes of Social Anxiety

Genetics play a big role in both shyness and social anxiety disorder. You are two to three times more likely to have social anxiety disorder if you have a parent or sibling with it. The disorder affects males and females equally, and it is very unusual to develop it in adulthood; the typical age of onset is between 11and 19 years old.

Effective Treatment

Cognitive-behavioral therapy, or CBT, is an effective treatment for social anxiety disorder. CBT is based on the relationship between thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Let’s take a typical situation, where you’d like to engage in conversation with a coworker but you find yourself avoiding situations where a conversation might happen. It’s true that by avoiding you may feel less anxious, but you do not get to test if your anxious thoughts are accurate, and you don’t get to practice small talk. So avoidance works in the short run, but not in the long run. (See diagram below.)

social-avoidance cycleAs with all anxiety disorders, people overestimate the threat—and social anxiety disorder is no exception. A CBT therapist will usually begin by helping you identify of the threatening thought you are having. “I won’t know what to say. There will be awkward silences and my coworker will think I am boring and stupid.”

How accurate is that thought? While it’s true that if you engage in a conversation with your co-worker, there may be an awkward silence. But everyone experiences this at times, and it does not usually lead to rejection.

The “B” in CBT stands for behavioral change—helping people to face their fears. We call this exposure therapy, which is done in small and manageable steps, like climbing a ladder. A typical first exposure might be simply to smile and say hi to a coworker. Subsequent exposures may be asking a question, sharing one thing about your weekend, and eventually, having a three-minute conversation.

Shyness: Not a Bad Thing

Shyness itself is not bad. In fact, shy people are often sensitive, thoughtful, and good at understanding others. It is important not to let your shyness stop you from doing what you want to do, like meeting people, making friends, dating, and speaking in front of groups.

People who have social anxiety have an underlying belief that they need to be socially perfect: no awkward silences, no signs of anxiety, and never tripping over their words, forgetting names, and always sounding smart and interesting. I call this social perfectionism, and no one can meet this standard. This is what I tell my clients all the time:
•    Lower the bar for yourself.
•    Be willing to make mistakes because everyone else does.
Once you develop more realistic expectations for yourself, it becomes a little easier to face your fears and live the life you want.

Ms. Shannon, a licensed marriage and family therapist, is the cofounder and clinical director of the Santa Rosa Center for Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. 


The Shyness and Social Anxiety Workbook for Teens: CBT and ACT Skills to Help Build Social Confidence, by Jennifer Shannon, LMFT (Instant Help Books, New Harbinger, 2012)

Podcast: Teen Social Anxiety Disorder: Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions That Work

Video: Ms. Shannon's daughter, Rose, speaks about her social anxiety as a teen and how cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) helped her.

How can I overcome my fear of flying?

Response from Martin N. Seif, PhD, ABPP:

Dr. Martin SeifOvercoming a fear of flying takes a lot of courage and practice. But it is possible with appropriate treatment. I never flew until I was almost 30 years old, and getting over my own fear of flying was one of the most difficult achievements of my life.

If you can successfully identify the triggers that produce your anxiety, you've taken the first step. It's important to note that fear of flying is not a single phobia. Most people who fear flying are claustrophobic, or frightened of being locked in the plane and unable to choose when to get off.

A phobia is an intense fear that is out of proportion to the danger, which is particularly relevant to fears of flying. Most “flight phobics” agree that flying is safe, yet frightening. They have a hard time reconciling their fear with safety statistics. Although we know our phobias are not logical, we cannot reason ourselves out of one.

Understanding Triggers

Our fears of flying have triggers, which are thoughts, images, sensations, and memories to which we have become sensitized. A person who is sensitized to certain bodily feelings might fear turbulence or normal take-off and landing. And someone who fears heights might become terrified thinking about flying many miles above the ground.

The list of triggers is long: turbulence, take-off, landings, terrorism, crashes, social anxieties, or being too far from home. Some people fear fire, illness spread through the air system, using the toilets, or violence on a plane. Others have a “bad feeling” about their flight, afraid that their anxieties will somehow predict a catastrophe.

Behind the Phobias and Fear

The common denominator for more than 90 percent of flight phobics is the fear that they will become overwhelmed with anxiety during the flight.

Usually people experience an unexpected panic while flying, and then they fear the terrifying symptoms will return during their next flight. These panics typically emerge between the ages of 17 to 34, around the time of a significant life change such as a birth, death, marriage, divorce, or graduation. That is why people with flying phobias often wonder why they had once been able to fly so comfortably. Very few fears of flying originate with a traumatic flight.

Fear of flying is quite common, but almost 20 percent of the population report that their fear interferes with their work and social lives. It’s not uncommon for fearful fliers to avoid vacations and job promotions. Experts divide fear of flying into three main groups; which one do you belong to?

  1. Those who don’t fly or haven’t flown for more than five years despite the opportunity to do so.
  2. Those who fly only when absolutely necessary with extreme terror.
  3. Those who fly when required, but with anxiety. 

Elements of Successful Treatment

The “active ingredient” for overcoming phobias is exposure to feared triggers. It’s important to note that avoidance keeps your phobia alive and intense.

With fear of flying, there is a huge component of anticipatory anxiety, or the fear experienced in anticipation of taking a flight. Any successful treatment will help fearful fliers manage anticipatory anxiety (because many people avoid planning flights, or they just cancel them) as well as during a flight.

Newer treatments for fear of flying involve traditional methods of cognitive-behavioral therapy, or CBT, tailored to flying. Therapy includes techniques for managing anxiety, such as diaphragmatic breathing, to use while on the flight. People who are sensitized to bodily sensations during take-off, landing, or turbulence are desensitized to these triggers.

Education helps calm anxiety, too: how a plane flies, facts about turbulence, and the meaning of the various sounds and bumps during a normal flight. Virtual reality programs, during which fearful fliers are exposed to computer simulations of flight triggers, are also helpful. So, too, are flight simulators that are ordinarily used to teach private pilots how to fly small planes. (These are sometimes located near airports.)

Group therapy programs that meet at airports and culminate in a graduation flight with the therapist are a
vailable in many parts of country, including New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Denver, and Minneapolis. They are particularly helpful in overcoming anticipatory anxiety and extending the treatment to the flight itself.

Medical treatment offers no perfect solution. Anti-anxiety medication (usually an SSRI or an SRNI) is helpful to some people who experience panic while flying, but they must be willing to take the drugs every day for a prolonged period of time. And they have little effect on anticipatory anxiety. The benzodiazepines can reduce anticipatory anxiety, but they also interfere with the therapeutic effects of exposure.

Having once been flight phobic myself, now I am constantly rewarded by the pleasure of being able to jump on a plane and fly anywhere in the world.

Martin N. Seif, PhD, ABPP, is a master clinician who has spent the last thirty years developing treatment methods for anxiety disorders. He has also experienced first-hand the crippling effects of anxiety. His path to recovery led him to develop the Anxiety Disorder Treatment Program.

Find Fear of Flying Workshops in your area and other resources. 

Can antibiotics increase anxiety symptoms?

Response from Mary E. (Beth) Salcedo, MD:

Antibiotics are among the most widely prescribed drugs in the United States, and they can cause many side effects. But when they are used properly, they’re considered quite safe. Most of their side effects are physical; one of the most common is an allergic reaction.

Anxiety symptoms are one of the lesser-known side effects. In certain people, antibiotics can cause symptoms that may mimic anxiety, such as dizziness or gastrointestinal side effects. In these cases, anxiety may be secondary to other side effects, instead of being a side effect on its own.

Although relatively infrequent, psychiatric symptoms have been reported as a side effect of most antibiotics. The class of antibiotics known as fluoroquinolones (Cipro is a well-known example) are probably most likely to cause anxiety. These side effects can vary among people, and they often get better as an individual adapts to the medication. Fortunately for most people, the symptoms should fully abate once they stop taking the drug.

It is unusual for anxiety to be so distressing that an antibiotic must be discontinued, but this has been reported. Most likely in these cases, however, is the risk factor of a pre-existing anxiety disorder.

Mary E. (Beth) Salcedo, MD, the Medical Director of The Ross Center for Anxiety and Related Disorders in Washington, D.C.

My SSRI antidepressant doesn’t work for me anymore. Why not?

Response from Mark Pollack, MD:

Your doctor has prescribed an SSRI (serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor) for your anxiety disorder or depression (or both), but you feel you aren’t responding adequately to your treatment.

Mark Pollack, MDConsider these issues: 
•    Your prescribed dose may be too low.
•    You may not have been taking it long enough to achieve a full response.
•    Side effects may prevent you from taking adequate doses.

SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors)

Generic names How they work
citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline
Relieves symptoms by blocking the reabsorption, or reuptake, of serotonin by certain nerve cells in the brain. This leaves more serotonin available, which enhances neurotransmission—the sending of nerve impulses—and improves mood. SSRIs are “selective” because they affect only serotonin and not other neurotransmitters.

While the SSRIs work in similar ways, they’re not identical because they differ in their chemical structure and in their potency. And for reasons we do not yet fully understand, some patients may respond better to one SSRI than another.

Another Issue

Now some intriguing research suggests another potential cause for why SSRIs may not be effective in some cases. Recent evidence suggests that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) taken with SSRIs may reduce their effectiveness.

NSAIDs (Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs)

Generic names How they work
aspirin, celecoxib, diclofenac, diflunisal, etodolac, ibuprofen, indomethacin, ketoprofen,  ketorolac,  nabumetone, naproxen, oxaprozin, piroxicam, salsalate, sulindac, tolmetin Used primarily to treat inflammation, mild to moderate pain, and fever, NSAIDs block the enzymes and reduce prostaglandins throughout the body that promote these symptoms.

According to one theory, depression may be related to the body’s inflammatory responses. Called the cytokine hypothesis, this theory is based on observations that some cytokines, or the chemicals released as part of inflammation, help regulate serotonin and other neurotransmitters. Reducing inflammation, the NSAIDs negate the effects of the SSRIs, which increase levels of these chemicals.

Talk to your doctor if you take SSRIs and NSAIDs, and do not stop taking either medication. Learn about discontinuing medications. Ask if your use of NSAIDs — long-term or occasional — might be affecting your response to your SSRI antidepressant.

Mark Pollack, MD, is the Grainger Professor and Chairman, Department of Psychiatry, Rush University Medical Center

I am African American, and I think I may have an anxiety disorder. I worry that a therapist who is not African American might not be able to help me with my issues. How can I make sure my therapist understands what is wrong with me?

Response from Angela Neal-Barnett, PhD:

You are not alone. More than 40 million adults in the United States suffer from some form of anxiety. Sadly, only one-third recognize what may be happening and talk to their doctor. Congratulations on taking the first step in reclaiming your life and asking for help.

When talking to your doctor, make sure you do the following:

  • Use your own words to describe your feelings, symptoms, and experiences.
  • Give an example such as, “Lately, rather than driving over a bridge, I will take the long way around.” or “At night for no reason at all I wake up with my heart pounding and feeling very, very scared.”
  • Describe your physical symptoms.
  • Tell your doctor how these experiences make you feel.

Once you explain what you are experiencing, your doctor will refer you to a psychologist, psychiatrist, or social worker who has expertise in treating anxiety disorders. At the first meeting, this person will gather more information about your symptoms and explain how the therapy process works.

Most will use some form of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to help you overcome and manage the disorder. CBT is a form of therapy that helps you understand how thoughts and feelings influence behaviors.

As an African American psychologist who specializes in anxiety among African Americans, I frequently receive calls and e-mails from people who are concerned because their physician has referred them to a non-African American therapist. They want to know if this therapist will understand “their issues.” It’s an excellent and important question.

Whereas it would be wonderful if everyone who contacts me could be referred to an African American therapist, the reality is that the number of African American therapists is extremely small: Only about 1.8 percent of licensed psychologists are African Americans, 2.3 percent of all psychiatrists are African Americans, and 7 percent of licensed social workers are African American.

Fortunately, to be a licensed mental health professional in most states, you must receive training in multicultural issues. This means you must be trained to deliver treatment to African Americans, Latinos and Latinas, Asian Americans, and American Indians and Alaska Natives. As someone who provides that training, I know firsthand the care and commitment that goes into insuring that trainees are culturally competent.

If you are concerned about your therapist’s ability to understand African American issues, the best course of action is to simply ask. Here are three important questions:

  • Have you ever treated an African American with an anxiety disorder?
  • I’m concerned that you may not understand my issues, concerning being an African American female or male and being anxious. Do you feel you can?
  • Have you been trained in multicultural issues?

Anxiety is treatable, and with the help of a therapist who has been trained in multicultural issues, regardless of race or ethnicity, you can reclaim your life.

Angela Neal-Barnett, PhD, an associate professor of psychology at Kent State University, is a leading expert on anxiety disorders among African Americans. She is the CEO of Soothe Your Nerves, Inc., and the author of Soothe Your Nerves: The Black Woman’s Guide to Understanding and Overcoming Anxiety, Panic, and Fear (Fireside/Simon and Schuster, 2003). 

What is animal hoarding? Is it like hoarding lots of objects? Can people be cured?

Response from Karen L. Cassiday, PhD:

 When most people hear about animal hoarding, they recall shocking news stories or imagine Karen Cassiday, PhDthe “crazy cat lady.” They immediately side with the rescued animals, rarely considering the life of the hoarder or what led to this behavior.

The term "animal hoarding" refers to the compulsive need to collect and own animals for the sake of caring for them that results in accidental or unintentional neglect or abuse. Most hoarders of animals fall victim to their good intentions and end up emotionally overwhelmed, socially isolated, and ultimately alienated from family and friends. The problem causes immense suffering for both animals and people. It also creates great expense for local animal shelters and may require regional and national efforts to find homes for large numbers of animals.

A Growing Concern

No one really knows the number of animal hoarders, but reports in the media and to animal control and law enforcement agencies have increased five-fold in the past decade. Approximately 40 percent of object hoarders also hoard animals. Hundreds of thousands of animals are affected each year, and the Internet may make it easier for hoarders to engage in animal rescue. And like object hoarding, this problem is underreported and hidden because animal hoarders tend to come to the attention of mental health professionals and animal control authorities only when others complain..

Specific Problem Areas

Animal hoarders have problems with acquiring animals, handling and managing, and , getting rid of them. Compulsively reading animal-adoption websites, visiting shelters on euthanasia days, or searching alleys for stray animals can lead to acquiring too many pets. Frequently hoarders imagine all the wonderful ways in which they can save or rescue animals. They have every intention to care for their pets, but their difficulties with organization, attention, and focus make it easy for them to keep their living spaces very messy with animal waste and clutter; many have attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Hoarders have a hard time letting go of their objects or animals because they have a terrible time making even simple decisions; for example, “Is this dog my favorite or should I adopt him out?” They also may have subtle memory problems and feel that they cannot trust their recall, so they keep things to preserve memories.

Emotional Attachments

Hoarders also have an intense emotional attachment to the animals in their care. Their behavior helps them avoid the pain of letting go of things that seem very special, even when the clutter prevents comfortable living. Many object hoarders believe that things should be saved for some special event, even though the event never happens. This is true for animal hoarders, too. They imagine the wonderful way in which they will heal love, and nurture their pets, while overlooking the terrible effects of having too many of them.

Most of the hoarders that I treat confuse their good intention to manage or reduce their clutter with the actual act of organizing or discarding their clutter. They churn through their piles of junk, feeling as if they have accomplished something significant, even though we would be unable to discern any improvement. Animal hoarders do the same thing. They clear a small area of their home of animal waste, or find a special container for pet food, but fail to address that their home, furniture, and lives are destroyed by having too many animals.

Triggering an Abundance of Love

Studies on animal hoarders show that their behavior frequently begins after an illness, disability or death of a significant other, or another difficult life event such as a trauma during their youth.

They appear to seek out social relationships with animals and people. They view their animals as the sole or major source of love, and they emphasize how much they give and receive from their animals. Those I treat seem to have a great capacity to give love and are beloved by their family and friends. For many, keeping their animals appears to guarantee a conflict-free relationship. They often refer to their animals as their babies, and they confuse their loving the animals with the reality of their inability to provide a safe, clean, and healthy home for them.

Many see themselves as a rescue service for animals that others reject. Their hoarding may give them a special role as a person who saves the animals that are unloved by others. Their hoarding provides them a special identify that helps them feel special, loved, and important. Consequently they feel unable to give up their animals for adoption because they believe no one else will provide the intense love that they feel for them—despite the fact that the hoarder can’t provide adequate food, shelter, safety, or veterinary care.

Unhappy Consequences

The result of animal neglect is especially sad. Everyone suffers with animal hoarding—the animals, the hoarder, and those who love the hoarder. Hoarders frequently neglect their own health, nutrition, and social life because they spend all their time, money, and energy caring for their animals. They are emotionally overwhelmed and trapped by their indecision and sense of responsibility and are often sleep-deprived. Their homes are overcome by animal waste, and they can suffer health problems created by inhalation of ammonia, fleas and tics, and animal-borne illnesses.

And the animals suffer the same fate: poor health, malnutrition, disease, and even death. They are stressed by frequent fights over food; territory, or mating in crowded conditions and usually are not spayed or neutered. Hoarded animals can’t retreat when they feel stressed or threatened, which is natural behavior for pets living in healthy homes or in the wild. All hoarding leads to a sad outcome, but the saddest of all is the animals who lie and die in an environment of neglect, filth, and stressful overcrowding as innocent prisoners of well-intentioned but misguided love. These animals are innocent victims, enduring tragic lives with people who are equally trapped.

Treatment Options

Like object hoarders, animal hoarders rarely seek treatment unless those who love them motivate them. Their inability to make decisions, stop acquisition behaviors, and trust others with their animals keeps them stuck. Many have few alternative activities to help them feel productive because they are consumed with vain attempts at animal care. Simply removing the animals from a hoarder’s home doesn’t teach them new ways to manage their lives and prevent additional hoarding. We know that cleaning out a hoarder’s home only provides more open space to refill with clutter. Animal control officials report that without treatment, those who have their animals removed are at risk for becoming repeat animal hoarders.

Unless a hoarder engages in cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) designed to address whatever leads to and maintains hoarding, they are likely to repeat their mistakes. Research on treatment outcome for object hoarders shows that they can eliminate or decrease hoarding with the proper cognitive-behavioral therapy. We have every reason to believe that this is true for animal hoarders, but the research studies have yet to prove it.

Help From Family and Friends

Treatment for animal hoarders will usually involve coordinating intervention with local or regional animal shelters and animal control officers to make it harder for the hoarder to rescue or adopt more animals. It also helps to have the family and friends become involved in treatment so that the hoarder can quickly develop or maintain satisfying relationships that provide opportunities to give and receive the love that their animals offered. Simply trying to confront a hoarder with all of their mistakes and the terrible state of their animals and home will make them feel defensive and allow them rehearse their reasons for being a hoarder. Often furious and horrified by the hoarder’s behavior, family and friends usually need the help of a therapist to learn to how to be helpful, rather than bludgeon the hoarder with their confrontations.

The Numbers Speak

  • Every year 3,500 animal hoarders come to the attention of authorities.
  • At least 250,000 animals are affected each year.
  • Between 2 and 5 percent of the general population meets criteria for hoarding (both objects and animals).
  • Eighty percent of animal hoarders have diseased, dying, or dead animals on the premises.
  • Seventy percent of animal hoarders who come to the attention of authorities are females who are single, widowed, or divorced; although community-sampling studies find an equal ratio of males to females.
  • Up to 40 percent of object hoarders also hoard animals.
  • One hundred percent of hoarders relapse without treatment.

Karen L. Cassiday, PhD, is Clinical Director and Owner, Anxiety & Agoraphobia Treatment Center in Northbrook, Illinois, and Clinical Assistant Professor, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Sciences

I’m very anxious about falling. My anxiety and fear keep me from regular activities that I don’t want to give up. What can I do?

Response from Julie Loebach Wetherell, PhD :

People over the age of 85 are the fastest growing demographic group in the United States. And by 2050, two billion adults older than 65 will be living on this planet.

Julie Wetherell, PhDAmong the many concerns of older adults is an excessive fear of falling, which is a serious condition that can lead to inactivity, disability—and falls.

Fear and Avoidance

Older adults fear falling more than robbery, financial stress, or health problems. About 10 percent report excessive fear, and at least 3 percent of community-dwelling older adults avoid leaving their homes or yards.

Most people who fear falling avoid some physical activities. This fear is a better predictor of decreased physical activity than age, perceived health, number of prescription medications, gender, or history of falls.

Fear of falling and less physical activity lead to disability, including decreased capacity to perform daily living activities such as bathing and shopping. Fearful individuals often slow their gait, widen their stance, and make other adjustments that badly affect their balance. They may experience other measures of physical decline as well.

Paradoxically, the fear of falling increases the risk of falls. It also increases the risk of having to enter a health care facility and the loss of independence. Those who had excessive fear but no falls over a two-year period increased their risk of entering a nursing home five-fold relative to those with low fear.Of older adults in one scientific study, 56 percent with high levels of fear fell again within the following year, while only 37 percent of those without fear did.

Improving Your Quality of Life

Although appropriate caution is healthy, avoiding too many activities puts you at risk. If you have a fear of falling or want to help a friend or loved one, try the strategies below. But don’t be too protective. You could end up reinforcing the fear and making things worse in the long run.

  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has helpful information about reducing the risk of falling, including ways to make a home safer (getting rid of floor rugs, improving lighting, installing grab bars, etc.).
  • Some local agencies can help install and even pay for home modifications; call your local Area Agency on Aging or county senior services department to find referrals.
  • Have a doctor or pharmacist review a list of your medications to make sure they don’t increase the risk of falling; include all over-the-counter medications, including sleeping pills.
  • Ask a doctor for a referral to a physical therapist who can evaluate and recommend activities and ways to do them safely. Use a cane or walker if they are recommended.
  • With approval from a health care professional, start an exercise plan that emphasizes strength, balance, and mobility. Tai chi is particularly effective for people with concerns about falling. People who are not willing or able to leave their homes may wish to investigate classes on a local cable channel or purchase a commercial video.
  • Instead of avoiding activities that make you nervous, start small and take it slow. For example, visit the mall for a brief but manageable amount of time—around 15 minutes—when it isn't crowded. Use a cane or walker if your health care provider recommends it. Work up to longer periods, and rest as needed.

To improve your health and quality of life, ask your health care providers what else you can do and how to do it safely.

Julie Loebach Wetherell, PhD, is an Associate Professor in the Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego

What is hoarding, and how do I know if I’m a hoarder? What is the difference between hoarding and collecting?

Response from Fugen Neziroglu, PhD, ABBP, ABPP:

Hoarding is the compulsive purchasing, acquiring, searching, and saving of items that have little or no value. The behavior usually has deleterious effects—emotional, physical, social, financial, and even legal—for a hoarder and family members.

The descriptions below are typical of someone who hoards:

  • Avoids throwing away possessions (common hoarded items are newspapers, magazines, paper and plastic bags, cardboard boxes, photographs, household supplies, food, and clothing)
  • Experiences severe anxiety about discarding possessions
  • Has trouble making decisions about organizing possessions
  • Feels overwhelmed or embarrassed by possessions
  • Is suspicious of other people touching possessions 
  • Has obsessive thoughts about possessions:
     - Fear of running out of an item and needing it later
     - Checks the garbage to see if an item was accidentally discarded
  •  May have functional impairments:
     - Loss of living space inside the home (no place to eat, sleep, or cook)
     - Social isolation
     - Family or marital problems
     - Financial difficulties
     - Health hazards

People hoard for many reasons, among them the belief that their possessions will be useful or valuable in the future, have sentimental value, are unique and irreplaceable, or because they can’t decide where something goes, it’s better just to keep it.

Hoarding vs. Collecting

Hoarding is not the same as collecting. In general, collectors have a sense of pride about their possessions, and they experience joy in displaying and talking about their possessions and conversing. They keep their collection organized, feel satisfaction adding to it, and budget their time and money.

Hoarders generally experience embarrassment about their possessions and feel uncomfortable when others see them. Their clutter often takes over functional living space, and they feel sad or ashamed after acquiring additional items. Also, they often incur great debt, sometimes extreme.

Effective treatment is available from qualified mental health professionals, who can also help the affected family members.

Listen to a podcast about hoarding.

Find a therapist in your area who can treat hoarding.

Fugen Neziroglu, PhD, ABBP, ABPP, is the Clinical Director and Co-Founder of the Bio-Behavioral Institute, Great Neck, New York. 

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